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The Earth sciences are discussed in a separate article.Physics, in its modern sense, was founded in the mid-19th century as a synthesis of several older sciences—namely, those of mechanics, optics, acoustics, electricity, magnetism, heat, and the physical properties of matter.This calendar played an important role in the history of astronomy, allowing astronomers to calculate the number of days between any two sets of observations.

Astrophysics, the study of the physical properties of celestial bodies, arose during the 19th century and is closely connected with the determination of the chemical composition of those bodies.In the 20th century physics and astronomy became more intimately linked through cosmological theories, especially those based on the theory of relativity.( Physical science, like all the natural sciences, is concerned with describing and relating to one another those experiences of the surrounding world that are shared by different observers and whose description can be agreed upon.In contrast to the Egyptians, the Babylonians were interested in the accurate prediction of astronomical phenomena, especially the first appearance of the new Moon.Using the zodiac as a reference, by the 4th century , they developed a complex system of arithmetic progressions and methods of approximation by which they were able to predict first appearances.