" Nabokov answered: "I often think there should exist a special typographical sign for a smile – some sort of concave mark, a supine round bracket, which I would now like to trace in reply to your question." Later, in 1996, Loufrani established The Smiley Company with his son, Nicolas Loufrani.
Nicolas developed hundreds of different emoticons, including 3D versions.
Users from Japan popularized a kind of emoticon called kaomoji (顔文字; lit.
顔(kao)=face, 文字(moji)=character(s); often confused with emoji in the West) that can be understood without tilting one's head to the left. As social media have become widespread, emoticons have played a significant role in communication through technology, and some devices have provided stylized pictures that do not use punctuation.
The National Telegraphic Review and Operators Guide in April 1857 documented the use of the number 73 in Morse code to express "love and kisses" (later reduced to the more formal "best regards").
The text of his original proposal, posted to the Carnegie Mellon University computer science general board on 19 September 1982 (), was thought to have been lost, but was recovered 20 years later by Jeff Baird from old backup tapes.
I propose that the following character sequence for joke markers: :-) Read it sideways.
is a pictorial representation of a facial expression using punctuation marks, numbers and letters, usually written to express a person's feelings or mood.
In Western countries, emoticons are usually written at a right angle to the direction of the text.